EFFECTIVENESS OF MANUAL THERAPY AND   ADJUVANT THERAPY IN KNEE OSTEOARTHRITIS: A LITERATURE REVIEW

ABSTRACT
Background: A common degenerative joint condition called osteoarthritis (OA) is marked by increasing loss of cartilage, joint discomfort, and reduced function. Treatment plans for knee OA usually combine pharmacological and non-pharmacological measures. The potential benefits of manual and adjuvant therapy in controlling symptoms of OA have drawn interest among non-pharmacological techniques.
Objective: This review of the literature intends to assess the impact of manual therapy and complementary therapies on knee OA. The main goals were to determine how effectively manual therapies and adjuvant therapies work to improve pain, function, and quality of life in people with knee OA.
Methodology: A deliberate research of electronic databases such as PubMed, Cochrane Library, and Embase was carried out to pinpoint appropriate RCTs that were released from 2018 onwards.
Result: Fifteen RCTs in all that met the inclusion criteria were found during the review. These studies’ findings imply that manual therapies can significantly enhance pain alleviation, physical function, and patient-reported outcomes for people with osteoarthritis in their knees, either when used alone or in conjunction with adjunctive therapies.
Conclusion: The use of manual and adjuvant therapy to address the symptoms of osteoarthritis in the knee shows potential. However, more investigation is necessary to determine the best course of action and the long-term effectiveness of manual and complementary therapy in the management of knee osteoarthritis. This includes large-scale RCTs with extended follow-up periods.
Keywords: Knee Osteoarthritis, Manual Therapy, Adjuvant Therapy, Pain, Mobilisation.

IMPACT OF MCKENZIE METHOD WITH CONVENTIONAL THERAPY ON LUMBAR RADICULOPATHY: A CASE REPORT

ABSTRACT
Lower back pain is a prevalent and incapacitating global disorder, often attributed to factors such as prolonged standing, excess weight, and heavy lifting. Radiculopathy, a condition leading to lower back pain radiating to the lower extremities, is a common manifestation. This case study focuses on a 46-year-old businesswoman presenting with specific lower back discomfort and pain in her left lower extremity during certain movements. She reported experiencing severe lower back pain a month ago after an 8-hour standing period, with a Numeric Pain Rating Scale (NPRS) score of 8 and an Oswestry Disability Index score of 29, indicating a significant impact on her overall life.
The McKenzie method, a prescribed exercise approach for spine management, was employed for diagnosis and treatment. This case study illustrates the clinical presentation, causes, diagnosis, radiological assessment, and management of lumbar radiculopathy using the McKenzie technique and Transcutaneous Electrical Nerve Stimulation (TENS). The study spanned three weeks with three sessions per week, including reassessment after each week.
The findings suggest that the McKenzie technique combined with TENS had a substantial positive impact in alleviating lumbar radiculopathy.
Keywords: Lumbar radiculopathy, McKenzie, TENS, low back pain, lumbar spine

PREBIOTICS AND PROBIOTICS: AN OVERVIEW ON MECHANISM OF ACTION AND THERAPEUTIC APPLICATIONS

ABSTRACT
The current review explores the intricate mechanism and diverse therapeutic applications of prebiotics and probiotics in promoting gastrointestinal health. Prebiotics, nondigestible compounds, foster the growth of beneficial gut bacteria, while probiotics, live microorganisms directly contribute to the microbial balance. Therapeutically, these agents have demonstrated efficacy in treating and preventing various gastrointestinal conditions, such as inflammatory bowel disease, irritable bowel syndrome diseases, and antibiotic–associated diarrhoea. Additionally, their impact extends beyond the gut, influencing systemic conditions such as metabolic syndrome and mental health. Understanding the intricate interplay between prebiotics, probiotics, and the host provides insights into developing targeted interventions for personalized healthcare. This review highlights the evolving landscape of prebiotic and probiotic research, emphasizing their potential as innovative therapeutic tools for a range of health conditions.

Keywords: Prebiotics, probiotics, gastrointestinal health, therapeutic applications, metabolic syndrome

RESEARCH, A GLOBAL EYE-CARE NEEDS AND SOLUTIONS: AN UNDERUTILIZED AND UNTAPPED OPTOMETRY RESOURCE- INDIAN VERSUS INTERNATIONAL SCENARIO

ABSTRACT
Purpose: The purpose of this study is to compare and assess the knowledge, attitude, and perceived factors towards research amongst undergraduate (UG) Optometry students in India with an International scenario. Methodology: A cross-sectional descriptive study was conducted among Indian and international UG Optometry students. A modified questionnaire was used to collect data from UG optometry students through an online Google form, which was circulated electronically. Results: Out of 154 subjects [(77 Indian & 77 Abroad), Male-60% & 30% while Female-40% & 70% respectively], 36 Indian subjects (46.7%) & 61 Abroad subjects (79.2%) were having an idea to research while (93.5%) & (80.5%) were having interest towards research respectively. The common perceived factors including, Inadequate support by faculty (27%& 27%), Inadequate motivation (28.6% & 32.5%), Inadequate financial support (27.3%& 31.2%), Lack of time (13%& 49.4%), need of adequate training (36.3%& 28.6%), lack of skills and knowledge (35.1%& 37.7%), lack of interest (22.1% & 27.3%) and not have any opportunities to take part in research (24.7%& 13%) were observed in Indian and Abroad subjects respectively. All factors mentioned were found to be statistically significant (p<0.05) with the Chi-square & ANOVA test in SPSS version 21. Conclusion: Most students had a positive attitude or interest in eye health research, but Indian students lacked an ample number of resources in comparison to abroad ones. So, a positive cum supportive environment (including the availability of optimum resources) is needed to improve skills & knowledge about research amongst UG optometry students during their academic life. Keywords: Optometry, Research methodology, Education, Eye-care, Research barriers

ROLE OF INTERPRETATIVE REMARKS IN CLINICAL BIOCHEMISTRY-A PERSPECTIVE OF MEDICAL       BIOCHEMIST

ABSTRACT
It is a professional requirement for clinical biochemists to provide Interpretative Remarks (IR). Few clinical labs give any comments at all, and the majority of laboratories just employ pre-written remarks on the report. In addition to physicians, other medical professionals, and occasionally even patients themselves, seek laboratory experts for guidance on data interpretation. The quality of interpretative remarks is impacted by the unavailability of the patient’s medical record, restricted communication with the doctors, and a lack of professional experience. The purpose of this paper is to highlight how crucial it is to provide interpretive commentary in the context of responsibility for medical biochemists. In a similar vein, this paper offers guidance to those who offer interpretations.
Keywords: Interpretative remarks, Critical alerts, QMS, Biochemistry reporting, Medical decisions

BRIDGING THE GAP: THE UNTAPPED POTENTIAL OF LITERATURE IN SCIENCE EDUCATION

ABSTRACT
Despite their apparent divergence, science, rooted in cold, hard facts, and literature, soaring its wings of imagination, their paths converge in the insatiable need to explore, understand, and ignite curiosity. Recognizing this potential, educators are embracing literature as a transformative tool in science education.  This abstract explores the untapped potential of literature in science education, highlighting its ability to not only equip students with critical cognizance but also to cultivate a deeper appreciation for scientific inquiry and discovery. By integrating literature into scientific education, educators create a dynamic and engaging learning environment that empowers students to become active learners, critical thinkers, informed citizens and passionate explorers in this technology dependent, scientifically advanced world.

Keywords: Science education, Literature integration, Student engagement, Technology integration, Health humanities

MANAGING MYOPIA CONTROL: A REVIEW OF PROVEN STRATEGIES

ABSTRACT
Myopia control is a significant concern for parents of myopic children, and clinical research is expanding strategies to decrease myopia progression. This article reviews peer-reviewed research on a range of strategies for slowing down the progression of myopia, such as wearing bifocal or multifocal glasses, aligning gas-permeable contact lenses, going outside, and under-correcting myopic refractive error. Numerous interventions have proven ineffective, such as myopic refractive error under-correction, gas-permeable contact lens alignment, time spent outdoors, and bifocal or multifocal glasses.  The review found that myopia management measures, especially in children and teenagers, are an efficient strategy to delay myopia growth and lower the chances of excessive myopia, leading to significant eye issues later in life.
Keywords: Myopia control, multifocal lenses, orthokeratology, antimuscarinic drugs, atropine

PERCEPTION OF HEALTHY EATING: ROLE OF KNOWLEDGE, ATTITUDE, AND PRACTICES

ABSTRACT
A more profound comprehension of one of the factors affecting eating patterns is necessary to advocate and encourage individuals to eat effectively and successfully. Among the many things, people’s eating habits influence how they view nutritious food. In this review, “Perception of healthy eating” is people’s ideas about eating nutritious, ingesting for health, and consuming healthy foods. This article aims to summarise the study’s findings on eating healthy and determine the current perception of knowledge, attitude, and practices. Twenty recent articles were reviewed in the present study. It is crucial to comprehend the Knowledge, Attitude, and Practices (KAP) underlying young people’s eating habits to comprehend their viewpoints on food. It helps combat unhealthy eating and decreases the ratio of many diseases due to an unhealthy body. Adolescent obesity can be avoided by encouraging good eating habits; families may play a big part.
Keywords: Knowledge, Attitude, Practices, Nutritional Status, Obesity, Tools for Assessment.

EFFECTIVENESS OF COMBINATION THERAPY AND SHOULDER GLIDES ON FROZEN SHOULDER: A CASE REPORT

ABSTRACT
Frozen shoulder is the gradual loss of movement in the shoulder (glenohumeral) joint. When the shoulder is frozen, the joint has become stiff and its movement is limited. It is also called adhesive capsulitis and commonly treated by manual therapy and exercise, usually delivered together as components of a physical therapy intervention. The differential diagnosis includes biceps tendinopathy, glenohumeral osteoarthritis, neoplasm, rotator cuff tendinopathy or tear (with or without impingement), and subacromial and subdeltoid.  The case report is based on use of combination therapy and shoulder glides to reduce the pain and improve the Range of motion of the joint. Combination therapy comprises of transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation and ultrasonic therapy at different intensities according to different musculoskeletal conditions. Outcome measure used were Numerical Pain Rating Scale for pain and universal goniometer for measuring range of motion. In conclusion, the study supports the use of combination therapy and shoulder glides are beneficial in reducing pain and improve shoulder Range of motion in patients with case of Frozen shoulder.
Keywords: Frozen shoulder, transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation, ultrasonic therapy, range of motion, numerical pain rating scale, pain.

IMPACT OF KNOWLEDGE, ATTITUDE AND PRACTICE OF MOTHERS REGARDING COMPLEMENTARY FEEDING ON NUTRITIONAL STATUS OF CHILDREN

ABSTRACT
Improper young child and infant feeding practices are key to malnourishment, associated with high rates of mortality during childhood. The World Health Organization proposes the initiation of breastmilk within the first hour of birth, exclusive breastfeeding for six months and the commencement of complementary feeding after six months. Complementary feeding involves the introduction of highly nutritious food that will cover the gap created when breastmilk becomes insufficient to cater for the child’s nutritional needs. Complementary feeding practices directly affect the nutritional status of the child; hence there is a need to explore the factors associated with complementary feeding practices. The main objective of this study was to assess the knowledge, attitude and practice of mothers regarding complementary feeding and its impact on the nutritional status of children. This study was a cross-sectional study which recruited 200 mothers and 200 children using a convenience sampling technique. Data was collected using a KAP questionnaire. Data analysis was done using Microsoft Excel for frequency and percentage. For statistical analysis, Spearman’s rank correlation was used to find associations between variables. The results showed that the mothers had average knowledge and practice and a good attitude on complementary feeding. Statistical analysis showed a significant positive correlation between the mother’s education status, monthly family income, mother’s knowledge and the nutritional status of children. A positive non-significant association was also observed between the mother’s attitude, practice and nutritional status of children. A high prevalence of malnutrition was observed in the study as a result of insufficient levels of knowledge, attitude and practice of mothers regarding complementary feeding. The low education status of the mother and low family monthly income also contributed to high levels of malnourishment in the study.
Keywords: Complementary feeding, malnutrition, nutritional status, knowledge, attitude, practice, feeding practices